Cadvcevs 3

CADVCEVS, or the Classification Approach to Data Visualization and Content Exploration Via Subject Guides, is an experimental interactive subject guide interface intended to get introductory-level students interested in the subject matter and to be used as a teaching tool in addition to the standard reference applications of subject guides.


Book I

Book I: The Contention of Achilles and Agamemnon.

In the war of Troy, the Greeks having sacked some of the neighboring towns, and taken from thence two beautiful captives, Chryseïs and Briseïs, allotted the first to Agamemnon, and the last to Achilles.  Chryses, the father of Chryseïs, and priest of Apollo, comes to the Grecian camp to ransom her: with which the action of the poem opens, in the tenth year of the siege.  The priest being refused, and insolently dismissed by Agamemnon, entreats for vengeance from his god; who inflicts a pestilence on the Greeks.  Achilles calls a council, and encourages Chalcas to declare the cause of it; who attributes it to the refusal of Chryseïs.  The king, being obliged to send back his captive, enters into a furious contest with Achilles, which Nestor pacifies; however, as he had the absolute command of the army, he [Agamemnon] seizes on Briseïs in revenge.  Achilles in discontent withdraws himself and his forces from the rest of the Greeks; and complaining to Thetis, she supplicates Jupiter to render them sensible of the wrong done to her son, by giving victory to the Trojans.  Jupiter, granting her suit, incenses Juno; between whom the debate runs high, till they are reconciled by the address of Vulcan.

The time of two-and-twenty days is taken up in this book: nine during the plague, one in the council and quarrel of the princes, and twelve for Jupiter’s stay with the Aethiopians, at whose return Thetis prefers her petition.  The scene lies in the Grecian camp, then changes to Chrysa, and lastly to Olympus.

Achilles’ wrath, to Greece the direful spring
Of woes unnumber’d, heavenly goddess, sing!
That wrath which hurled to Pluto’s gloomy reign
The souls of mighty chiefs untimely slain;
Whose limbs unburied on the naked shore,
Devouring dogs and hungry vultures tore.

Book II

Book II: The Trial of the Army, and Catalogue of the Forces.

Jupiter, in pursuance of the request of Thetis, sends a deceitful vision to Agamemnon, persuading him to lead the army to battle, in order to make the Greeks sensible of their want of Achilles.  The general, who is deluded with the hopes of taking Troy without his assistance, but fears the army was discouraged by his absence, and the late plague, as well as by the length of time, contrives to make trial of their disposition by a stratagem.  He first communicates his design to the princes in council, that he would propose a return to the soldiers, and that they should put a stop to them if the proposal was embraced.  Then he assembles the whole host, and upon moving for a return to Greece, they unanimously agree to it, and run to prepare the ships.  They are detained by the management of Ulysses, who chastises the insolence of Thersites.  The assembly is recalled, several speeches made on the occasion, and at length the advice of Nestor followed, which was to make a general muster of the troops, and to divide them into their several nations, before they proceeded to battle.  This gives occasion to the poet to enumerate all the forces of the Greeks and Trojans, and in a large catalogue.

The time employed in this book consists not entirely of one day.  The scene lies in the Grecian camp, and upon the sea-shore; towards the end it removes to Troy.

Now pleasing sleep had seal’d each mortal eye,
Stretch’d in the tents the Grecian leaders lie:
The immortals slumber’d on their thrones above;
All , but the ever-wakeful eyes of Jove.

Book III

Book III: The Duel of Menelaus and Paris.

The armies being ready to engage, a single combat is agreed upon between Menelaus and Paris (by the intervention of Hector) for the determination of the war.  Iris is sent to call Helen to behold the fight.  She leads her to the walls of Troy, where Priam sat with his counsellors observing the Grecian leaders on the plain below, to whom Helen gives an account of the chief of them.  The kings on either part take the solemn oath for the conditions of the combat.  The duel ensues; wherein Paris being overcome, he is snatched away in a cloud by Venus, and transported to his apartment.  She then calls Helen from the walls, and brings the lovers together.  Agamemnon, on the part of the Grecians, demands the restoration of Helen, and the performance of the articles.

The three-and-twentieth day still continues throughout this book.  The scene is sometimes in the fields before Troy, and sometimes in Troy itself.

Thus by their leaders’ care each martial band
Moves into ranks, and stretches o’er the land.
With shouts the Trojans, rushing from afar,
Proclaim their motions, and provoke the war.

Book IV

Book IV: The Breach of the Truce, and the First Battle.

The gods deliberate in council concerning the Trojan war; they agree upon the continuation of it, and Jupiter sends down Minerva to break the truce.  She persuades Pandarus to aim an arrow at Menelaus, who is wounded, but cured by Machaön.  In the meantime some of the Trojan troops attack the Greeks.  Agamemnon is distinguished in all the parts of a good ge neral; he reviews the troops, and exhorts the leaders, some by praises and others by reproof.  Nestor is particularly celebrated for his military discipline.  The battle joins, and great numbers are slain on both sides.

The same day continues through this as through the last book (as it does also through the two following, and almost to the end of the seventh book).  The scene is wholly in the field before Troy.

And now Olympus’ shining gates unfold;
The gods, with Jove, assume their thrones of gold:
Immortal Hebe, fresh with bloom divine,
The golden goblet crowns with purple wine:
While the full bowls flow round, the powers employ
Their careful eyes on long-contended Troy.

Book V

Book V: The Acts of Diomed.

Diomed, assisted by Pallas, performs wonders in this day’s battle.  Pandarus wounds him with an arrow, but the goddess cures him, enables him to discern gods from mortals, and prohibits him from contending with any of the former, excepting Venus.  Aeneas joins Pandarus to oppose him; Pandarus is killed, and Aeneas in great danger but for the assistance of Venus; who, as she is removing her son from the fight, is wounded on the hand by Diomed.  Apollo seconds her in his rescue, and at length carries off Aeneas to Troy, where he is healed in the temple of Pergamus.  Mars rallies the Trojans, and assists Hector to make a stand.  In the mean time Aeneas is restored to the field, and they overthrow several of the Greeks; among the rest Tlepolemus is slain by Sarpedon.  Juno and Minerva wounds him and sends him groaning to heaven.

The first battle continues through this book.  The scene is the same as in the former.

But Pallas now Tydides’ soul inspires,
Fills with her force, and warms with all her fires,
Above the Greeks his deathless fame to raise,
And  crown her hero with distinguish’d praise.
High on his helm celestial lightnings play,
His beamy shield emits a living ray;
The unwearied blaze incessant streams supplies,
Like the red star that fires the autumnal skies,
When fresh he rears his radiant orb to sight,
And, bathed in ocean, shoots a keener light.

Book VI

Book VI: The Episodes of Glaucus and Diomed, and of Hector and Andromache.

The gods having left the field, the Grecians prevail.  Helenus, the chief augur of Troy, commands Hector to return to the city, in order to appoint a solemn procession of the queen and the Trojan matrons to the temple of Minerva, to entreat her to remove Diomed from the fight.  The battle relaxing during the absence of Hector, Glaucus and Diomed have an interview between the two armies; where, coming to the knowledge of friendship and hospitality passed between their ancestors, they make exchange of their arms.  Hector, having performed the orders of Helenus, prevails upon Paris to return to the battle, and, taking a tender leave of his wife, Andromache, hastens again to the field.

The scene is first in the field of battle, between the rivers Simoïs and Scamander, and then changes to Troy.

Now heaven forsakes the fight: the immortals yield
To human force and human skill the field:
Dark showers of javelins fly from foes to foes;
Now here, now there, the tide of combat flows;
While Troy’s famed streams, that bound the deathful plain
On either side, run purple to the main.

Book VII

Book VII: The Single Combat of Hector and Ajax.

The battle renewing with double ardor upon the return of Hector, Minerva is under apprehensions for the Greeks.  Apollo, seeing her descend from Olympus, joins her near the Scaean gate.  They agree to put off the general engagement for that day, and incite Hector to challenge the Greeks to a single combat.  Nine of the princes accepting the challenge, the lot is cast and falls upon Ajax.  These heroes, after several attacks, are parted by the night.  The Trojans calling a council, Antenor proposes the delivery of Helen to the Greeks; to which Paris will not consent, but offers to restore them her riches.  Priam sens a herald to make this offer, and to demand a truce for burning the dead; the last of which only is agreed to by Agamemnon.  When the funerals are performed, the Greeks, pursuant to the advice of Nestor, erect a fortification to protect their fleet and camp, flanked with towers, and defended by a ditch and palisades.  Neptune testifies his jealousy at this work, but is pacified by a promise from Jupiter.  Both armies pass the night in feasting: but Jupiter disheartens the Trojans with thunder, and other signs of his wrath.

The three-and-twentieth day ends with the duel of Hector and Ajax; the next day the truce is agreed; another is taken up in the funeral rites of the slain; and one more in building the fortification before the ships.  So that somewhat about three days is employed in this book.  The scene lies wholly in the field.

So spoke the guardian of the Trojan state,
Then rush’d impetuous through the Scaean gate.
Him Paris follow’d to the dire alarms;
Both breathing slaughter, both resolved in arms.
As when to sailors laboring through the main,
That long have heaved the weary oar in vain,
Jove bids at length the expected gales arise;
The gales blow grateful, and the vessel flies:
So welcome these to Troy’s desiring train;
The bands are cheer’d, the war awakes again.


Book VIII: The Second Battle, and the Distress of the Greeks.

Jupiter assembles a council of the deities, and threatens them with the pains of Tartarus if they assist either side: Minerva only obtains of him that she may direct the Greeks by her counsels.  The armies join battle: Jupiter on Mount Ida weighs in his balances the fates of both, and affrights the Greeks with his thunders and lightnings.  Nestor alone continues in the field in great danger: Diomed relieves him; whose exploits, and those of Hector, are excellently described.  Juno endeavors to animate Neptune to the assistance of the Greeks, but in vain.  The acts of Teucer, who is at length wounded by Hector, and carried off.  Juno and Minerva prepare to aid the Grecians, but are restrained by Iris, sent from Jupiter.  The night puts an end to the battle.  Hector continues in the field (the Greeks being driven to their fortifications before the ships), and gives orders to keep the watch all night in the camp, to prevent the enemy from re-embarking and escaping by flight.  They kindle fires through all the fields, and pass the night under arms.

The time of seven and twenty days is employed from the opening of the poem to the end of this book.  The scene here (except of the celestial machines) lies in the field towards the seashore.

Aurora now, fair daughter of the dawn,
Sprinkled with rosy light the dewy lawn;
When Jove convened the senate of the skies,
Where high Olympus’ cloudy tops arise.
The sire of gods his awful silence broke;
The heavens attentive trembled as he spoke.

Book IX

Book IX: The Embassy to Achilles.

Agamemnon, after the last day’s defeat, proposes to the Greeks to quit the siege, and return to their country.  Diomed opposes this, and Nestor seconds him, praising his wisdom and resolution.  He orders the guard to be strengthened, and a council summoned to deliberate what measures are to be followed in this emergency.  Agamemnon pursues this advice, and Nestor further prevails upon him to send ambassadors to Achilles, in order to move him to a reconciliation.  Ulysses and Ajax are made choice of, who are accompanied by old Phoenix.  They make, each of them, very moving and pressing speeches, but are rejected with roughness by Achilles, who notwithstanding retains Phoenix in his tent.  The ambassadors return unsuccessfully to the camp, and the troops betake themselves to sleep.

This book, and the next following, take up the space of one night, which is the twenty-seventh from the beginning of the poem.  The scene lies on the sea-shore, the station of the Grecian ships.

Thus joyful Troy maintain’d the watch of night;
While fear, pale comrade of inglorious flight,
And heaven-bred horror, on the Grecian part,
Sat on each face, and sadden’d every heart.

Book X

Book X: The Night Adventure of Diomed and Ulysses.

Upon the refusal of Achilles to return to the army, the distress of Agamemnon is described in the most lively manner.  He takes no rest that night, but passes through the camp, awaking the leaders, and contriving all possible methods for the public safety.  Menelaus, Nestor, Ulysses, and Diomed are employed in raising the rest of the captains.  They call a council of war, and determine to send scouts into the enemies’ camp, to learn their posture and discover their intentions.  Diomed undertakes this hazardous enterprise, and makes choice of Ulysses for his companion.  In their passage they surprise Dolon, whom Hector had sent on a like design to the camp of the Grecians.  From him they are informed of the situation of the Trojan and auxiliary forces, and particularly of Rhesus, and the Thracians who were lately arrived.  They pass on with success; kill Rhesus, with several of his officers, and seize the famous horses of that prince, with which they return in triumph to the camp.

The same night continues; the scene lies in the two camps.

All night the chiefs before their vessels lay,
And lost in sleep the labors of the day:
All but the king: with various thoughts oppress’d,
His country’s cares lay rolling in his breast.